Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Caryopses Morphology of Sporobolus (Poaceae: Eragrostidiae: Sporobolinae) in India and its Taxonomic Significance


The caryopses morphology of 16 taxa out of 18 taxa of Sporobolus (Poaceae) found in India is examined under Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopes. The macro- and micro-morphological characters such as shape, size, thickness (in cross section), embryo percentage, colour and surface testa ornamentation pattern were critically analysed to evaluate their taxonomic significance in the delimitation and identification of each taxon. Further, a bracketed dichotomous taxonomic key is provided here based on caryopses morphology to facilitate precise identification.


Caryopses, Morphology, Sporobolus, Poaceae, India.


Author Biography

S. Arumugam




TNAU Campus, Coimbatore -641003


Download data is not yet available.


  1. ARUMUGAM, S. 2016. A taxonomic study on the grass subtribe Sporobolinae Benth. (Tribe: Eragrostideae Stapf) In India. Ph.D. Th esis, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. Pp.1–186
  2. BANERJEE, S.K. AND K.P.S. CHAUHAN. 1981. Studies on the evolution of seed coat pattern in wheat by Scanning Electron Microscopy identifi cation. Seed Sci. Tech. 9: 819–822.
  3. BOECHAT, S.C. AND H.M. LONGHI-WAGNER. 2003. Análise do fruto em espécies de Eragrostis Wolf (Poaceae). Iheringia, Bot. 58: 131−166.
  4. BOGDAN, A.V. 1965. Seed morphology of some cultivated African grasses. Proc. Int. Seed Test. Assoc. 31: 789–799.
  5. BOR, N.L. 1960. Th e Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan (excluding Bambuseae). Pergamon Press, London.
  6. COLBRY, V.L. 1957. Diagnostic characteristics of the fruits and fl orets of economic species of North American Sporobolus. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 34: 1−24.
  7. FISCHER, C.E.C. 1934. Flora of the Presidency of Madras. Parts X and Adlard & Son Ltd., London. pp. 1815–1818.
  8. GANDHI, D., S. ALBERT AND N. PANDYA. 2013. Morphometric analysis of caryopses in nine species of Eragrostis (Poaceae) from India using SEM and Light Microscopy. Telopea 15: 87–97.
  9. GANDHI, D. AND S. ALBERT. 2015. Morphometric variations in caryopses and seedlings of two grass species growing under contrasting habitats. Nat. Sci. Biol. 7: 355–360.
  10. GIRALDO-CANAS, D., P.M. PETERSON AND I. SÃNCHEZ VEGA. 2012. Th e genus Eragrostis (Poaceae: Chloridoideae) in northwestern South America (Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru): Morphological and taxonomic studies. Bibliot. José Jerónimo Triana 23: 1–180.
  11. HILLMAN, F.H. 1916. Distinguishing characters of the seeds of Sudan grass and Johnson grass. Invent. Seeds U.S.D.A. Bur. Pl. Industr., Bull. 406. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington D.C.
  12. HOOKER, J.D. 1896. Th e Flora of British India. Vol. 7. Gramineae. L. Reeve & Co., London. pp. 1–422.
  13. JENSEN, L.A. 1957. Seed characteristics of certain wild barley, Hordeum spp. Proc. Int. Seed Testing Assoc. 7: 87–91.
  14. KARIHALOO, J.L. AND S.K. MALIK. 1994. Systematic relationships among some Solanum L. sect. melongana L. Evidence from seed characters. Indian J. Pl. Genet. Resources 7: 13–21.
  15. KARTHIKEYAN, S., S.K. JAIN, M.P. NAYAR AND M. SANJAPPA. 1989. Florae Indicae Enumeratio Monocotyledonae. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta. pp. 178–274.
  16. KOUL, K.K., R. NAGPAL AND S.N. RAINA. 2000. Seed coat micro sculpturing in Brassica and allied genera (subtribe Brassicinae, Raphanine, Morcandinaceae). Ann. Bot. 80: 385–397.
  17. LAZARIDES, M. 1997. A revision of Eragrostis (Eragrostideae, Eleusininae, Poaceae) in Australia. Austral. Syst. Bot. 10: 77−187.
  18. LIU, Q., N.N. ZHAO, G. HAO, X.Y. HU, AND Y.X. LIU. 2005. Caryopses morphology of the Chloridoideae (Gramineae) and its systematic implications. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 148: 57–72.
  19. MATSUTANI, A. 1986. Identifi cation of Italian millet from Esashika site by means of Scanning Electron Microscope. J. Anthropol. Soc. Nippon 94: 111–118.
  20. MOULIK, S. 1997. Th e Grasses and Bamboos of India. Vols. 1 & 2. Scientifi c Publishers, Jodhpur.
  21. NESBITT M. 2006. Identifi cation guide for Near Eastern grass seeds. Institute of Archaeology, University College, London: London
  22. PETERSON, P.M. AND J. VALDES-REYNA. 2005. Eragrostis (Poaceae: Chloridoideae: Eragrostideae: Eragrostidinae) from North eastern Mexico. Sida 21: 1365–1420.
  23. PETERSON, P.M. AND I. SÃNCHEZ VEGA. 2007. Eragrostis (Poaceae: Chloridoideae: Eragrostideae: Eragrostidinae) of Peru. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 94: 745−790.
  24. TERRELL, E.E. AND P.M. PETERSON. 1993. Caryopsis morphology and classifi cation in the Triticeae (Pooideae: Poaceae). Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 83: 1–25.
  25. VIVEK, C.P., G.V.S. MURTHY, G. GNANASEKARAN, K.A.A. KABEER AND V.J. NAIR. 2015. A study on the caryopses morphology of the grass genus Eragrostis in India. Nelumbo 57: 1−10.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >> 

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.