Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Traditional Herbal Remedies used in Sikkim, India


The paper deals with the 225 different uses of 167 plant species belonging to 84 families for the treatment of 27 major ailments among ten rural communities of Sikkim. All the gathered information were based on the herbal practices of selective representative villages of Sikkim. During the collection of information, traditional uses pattern, parts used for, mode of preparation and administration of doses were also discussed. Out of the total uses of plants, herbs constitute c. 50% , trees by 25% and shrubs by 17%, while climbers constitutes the lowest habitat category (8%). Most herbal medicines were used in the form of paste of the plant or of a particular part. The other modes of uses were decoction, powder or inhalations etc. Remedies for common ailments were known to all households, while medicines or doses for critical ailments were taken as per the advice of the herbal healers or Jakris. The present study also indicated that the region harbors a high diversity of medicinal plants. A list of 167 plant species along with their Local name, habit, flowering and fruiting period, plant parts used, medicinal properties and the mode of use are also enumerated.


Herbal Remedy, Medicinal Plants, Traditional Knowledge.



Download data is not yet available.


  1. Anonymous 1956. In: R.N. Chopra, S.L. Nayar, & I.C. Chopra (ed.) Glossary of Indian medicinal plants. India, C.S.I.R., New Delhi.
  2. Anonymous. 1966. The Wealth of India: Raw Materials. VII. Publications and Information Directorate, C.S.I.R., New Delhi.
  3. Balick , M.J. and P.A. Cox. 1996. Plants, People and culture: The Science of Ethnobotany. Scientific American Library, New York.
  4. Baualdo, I., E.M. Zardini and M. Ortiz. 1995. Medicinal Plants of Paraguay: underground organs: II. Economic Botany 49: 387-394.
  5. Bennet, S. S. R. 1983. Ethnobotanical Studies in Sikkim. Indian Forester 109(7): 477-481.
  6. Bennet, S. S. R. 1985. Ethnobotanical Studies in West Sikkim J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 7(2): 317-321.
  7. Bhat, R.B., E.O. Etejere and V.T. Oladipa. 1990. Ethnobotanical studies from Central Nigeria. Economic Botany 44: 382-390.
  8. Bonet, M. A., C. Blanche and J. Vall es. 1992. Ethnobotanical study of the river Tenes Valley (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula). J. Ethnopharmacology 37: 205-212.
  9. Bose, P.K. and A.C. Roy. 1936. The constitution of Ayapanin. J. Indian Chemical Society 13: 586-587.
  10. Caniago, I. and S.F. Siebert. 1998. Medicinal plant ecology, knowledge and conservation in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Economic Botany 52: 229-250.
  11. Dash, S.S. and M.K. Misra. 1997. Medicinal plants used by the Tribal of Koraput district, Orissa. In: P.M. Mohapatra &, P.C. Mohapatra (ed.) Management in Tribal areas: Forest policy and people's participation. 160-182. Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi.
  12. Dash, S.S. and M. K. Misra. 1998. Taxonomic survey and systematic census of economic plants of Narayanapatna hills of Koraput district, Orissa. Jour. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 23(2): 473-498.
  13. Dash, S.S. and M. K. Misra. 2002. Ethno-medicinal plants of Koraput district, Orissa and their conservation. In: A.P. Das (ed.) Prospective of Biodiversity. 621-634. B.S.M.P.S., Dehradun.
  14. Dash, S.S. and P. Singh. 2002. Database of Trees of Sikkim Himalaya. J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 26(2): 285-310.
  15. Dash, S.S., A. Maiti and S.K. Rai. 2003. Traditional uses of plants among the urban population of Gangtok-Sikkim. Jour. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 27(2): 317-324.
  16. Dash, S.S. 1994. Ethnobotanical studies in the Narayapapatna region of Koraput district of Orissa. M. Phil dissertation submitted to Berhampur University, Berhampur, Orissa, India.
  17. Farnsworth, N.R. 1994. Ethnopharmacology and drug development. In: D.J. Chadwick & U. March,(ed), Ethnobotany and search for New Drugs.42-51. Ciba Foundation Symposium 183, Wiley, Chichester.
  18. Figueiredo, G.M., H.F. Leitao-Filho and A. Begossi. 1993. Ethnobotany of Atlantic forest coastal communities; diversity of plant used in Gamboa (Itacuruca Island, Brazil). Human Ecology 21: 419-430.
  19. Grierson, A.J.C. and D.G. Long. 1983-1984. Flora of Bhutan, 3 Vols. Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  20. Hajra, P.K. and P. Chakrabo rty. 1981. A survey of wild plants sold in the Lal Market of Gangtok. Indian Journal Forester 4(3): 217-220.
  21. Hara, H., W.T. Sterrn and L.H.J. Will iams. 1978. An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepals. Vol 1. British Museum ( Natural History), London.
  22. Hara, H. and L.H.J. Williams. 1979. An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepals Vol.2. British Museum (Natural History), London.
  23. Hara, H., A.O. Chapter and L.H.J. Will iams. 1982. An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepals Vol.3. British Museum (Natural History), London.
  24. Hebbar, S.S., V.H. Harsha, G.R. Shripathi and G.R. Hedge. 2004. Ethnobomedicines of Dharwad district in Karnataka, India-plants used in oral health care. J. Ethnopharmacology 94: 261-266.
  25. Jain, S.K. and A. Sakl ani. 1991. Observation on the ethnobotany of the tons valley region in the Uttarkashi District of the Northwest Himalaya, India. Mountain Research and Development 11: 157-161.
  26. Jain, Anita, S.S. Katewa, B.L. Chaudhary and Praveen Galav. 2004. Folk herbal medicines used in birth control and sexual diseases by tribals of Southern Rajasthan, India. J. Ethnopharmacology 90: 171-177.
  27. Jana, S.K. and A.S. Chauhan 2000. Ethnobatical Studies on Lepchas of Dzongu, North Sikkim, India. Annals Forestry 8(1): 131-144.
  28. Katewa, S.S., B.L. Chaudhary and Anita Jain. 2004. Folk herbal medicines from tribal area of Rajasthan, India . J. Ethnopharmacology 92: 41-46.
  29. Krishna, B. and S. Singh. 1987. Ethnobotanical observation in Sikkim. J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 9(1): 1-7.
  30. Kumar, S., P. Singh and V. Singh. 1994. Ethnobatanical aspects of some arboreal and arborescent taxa of Sikkim. In: Gupta, B.K (eds), Higher plants of Indian Sub-continent 3: 164-166. B.S.M.P.S. Dehradun.
  31. Leach, M. 1994. Rainforest Relations. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
  32. Nagarguna, N. and K. N. Rao. 1990. A survey of plant drugs of Rayalaseema, Andhra Pradesh, India. J. Ethnopharmacology 29: 137-158.
  33. Plotkin, M. J. 1988. The outlook for new agriculture and industiral products from the tropics. In: E.O Wilson (eds), Sustainable Harvest and Marketing of Rain Forest Products. 310-313. Island Press, Washington, DC.
  34. Polunin, O. and A. Stainton. 1984. Flowers of the Himalaya. Oxford University Press, Delhi.
  35. Rai, L.K. and E. Sharma. 1994. Medicinal Plants of Sikkim Himalaya: Status, Uses and Potential, Dehradun.
  36. Raja, D., C. Blanche and J.V. Xirau. 1997. Contribution to the knowledge of the pharmaceutical ethnobotany of La Segarra Region (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula) J. Ethnopharmacology 57: 149-160.
  37. Robinson, T. 1974. Metabolism and function of alkaloids in plants. Science 184: 430-435.
  38. Sheldon, J.W., M. J. Balick and S.A. Laird. 1997. Medicinal plants; can utilization and conservation coexist? In: advances in Economic Botany, Vol. 12: 114. The New York Botanical Garden, New York.
  39. Shrestha, P.M. and S.S. Dhill ion. 2003. Medicinal plant diversity and use in the highlands of Dolakha district, Nepal. J. Ethnopharmacology 86: 81-96.
  40. Singh, P. and A. S. Chauhan. 1997. Plant Diversity in Sikkim Himalaya. In: P.K. Hajra and V. Mudgal (ed.), Plant diversity Hotspots of India, An Overview. 137-158. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata.
  41. Singh, P. and A. S. Chauhan. 1999. Sikkim. In: Floristic Diversity and Conservation Strategies in India, Vol-III. 1419-146. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata.
  42. Steenkamp, V. 2003. Traditional herbal remedies used by South African women for gynecological complaints. J. Ethnopharmacology 86, 97-105.
  43. Tabuti, J., S.S. Dhillion and K. Lye. 2003. Traditional medicine in Bulamogi County, Uganda: its practitioners, uses and viability. J. Ethnopharmacology 85: 97-159.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>