Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Estimating lichen diversity of Arunachal Pradesh, India along with new records for the country


Occurrence 686 species of lichen belonging to 185 genera and 52 families was earlier reported from the state of Arunachal Pradesh, India. In this study ninety four lichen species new to the state are added. This includes eight lichen species (Bunodophoron australe (Laurer) A, Massal, Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar & Vězda, Graphis fujianensis Z.F. Jia & J.C. Wei, Graphis norstictica A.W. Archer & Lücking, Pertusaria subcopelandii Jariangpr, Pyrenula cruenta (Mont.) Vain., Ramboldia brunneocarpa Kantvilas & Elix and Usnea glabrata (Ach.) Vain.) which are new records for the country. The 780 lichen species belonging to 18 lichen bio-indicator communities. Graphidioid lichens are the dominant (18%) followed by Parmelioid (13%) and Pyrenulioid (09%) in Arunachal Pradesh. The present study can serve as a baseline for long term monitoring studies using lichen flora of the state as indicator.


New records, Indian-Eastern Himalayas, indicator communities, habitat sharing, qualitative/quantitative assessment



Download data is not yet available.


  1. APTROOT A. AND CM VAN HERK 2007. Further evidence of the effects of global warming on lichens particularly those with Tentepohlia phycobionts. Environmental Pollution 146: 293–298.
  2. AWASTHI DD 2007. A compendium of the macrolichens from India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Bishen Singh and Mahendera Pal Singh, Dehradun, India.
  3. BAJPAI R., D.K. UPRETI AND S. NAYAKA 2018A. The lichen genus Lepraria (Sterocaulaceae) and Leprocaulon (Leprocaulaceae) in India. Phytotaxa 356 (2): 101-116.
  4. BAJPAI R, V. SHUKLA, C.P. SINGH, O.P. TRIPATHI, S. NAYAKA AND D.K. UPRETI 2018B. Lichen community composition in Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh, tool for long-term climate change monitoring. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences 88 (3): 915-922.
  5. CAMERON R, I. GOUDIE AND D. RICHARDSON 2013. Habitat loss exceeds habitat regeneration for an IUCN flagship lichen epiphyte: Erioderma pedicellatum. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 43:1075–1080.
  6. DIRNBÖCK T., F. ESSL AND W. RABITSCH 2011. Disproportional risk for habitat loss of high altitude endemic species and climate change. Global Change Biology 17: 990-996
  7. EGAN R.S. 1987. A fifth checklist of the Lichen-formong Lichenicolous and allied fungi of the Conntinnetal United States and Canada. The Bryologist 90(2): 77-173.
  8. ELIX J.A. 2014. A catalogue of standardized chromatographic data and biosynthetic relationship for lichen substances. 3rdedition. Published by the RSC, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.
  9. GEISER L.H. AND P.N., NEITLICH 2007. Air pollution and climate gradients in Western Qregon and Washington indicated by epiphytic macrolichens. Environmental Pollution 145: 203-218.
  10. GREEN T.G.A. AND O.L. LANGE 1991. Ecophysiological adaptations of the lichen genera Pseudocyphellaria and Sticta to south temperate rainforests. The Lichenologist 23: 267-282.
  11. HEKKING W.H.A. AND H.J.M SIPMAN 1988. The lichens reported from the Guianas before 1897. Willdenowia 17: 193-228.
  12. JARIANGPRASERT S. 2006. New taxa of the lichen genus Pertusaria (Ascomycota) from Thailand. Mycotaxon 96: 109-121.
  13. JIA Z.E. AND J.C. WEI 2008. Graphis fujianensis, a new species of Graphiadaceae from China. Mycotaxon 104: 107-109.
  14. KANTVILAS G. AND J.A. ELIX 1994. Ramboldia, a new genus in the lichen family Lecanoraceae. The Bryologist 97: 296–304.
  15. LAKATOS M., U. RASCHER AND B. BÃœDEL 2006. Functional characteristics of corticolous lichens in the understory of a tropical low land rain forest. New Phytologist 172: 679-695.
  16. LÃœCKING R., A.W. ARCHER AND A. APTROOT 2009. A world-wide key to the genus Graphis (Ostropales: Graphidaceae). The Lichenologist 41 (4): 363-452.
  17. LÜCKING R., B.P. HODKINSON AND D.L. STEVEN 2016. The 2016 classification of lichenized fungi in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota–Approaching one thousand genera. The Bryologist 119 (4): 361-416
  18. LUMBSCH H.T., A.L. HIPP, P.K. DIVAKAR, O. BLANCO AND A. CRESPO 2008. Accelerated evolutionary rates in tropical and oceanic Parmelioid lichens (Ascomycota). BMC Evolutionary Biology 8: 257.
  19. MACDONALD A.M.D., D. COXSON AND C. BJÖRK 2013. A framework for climate biomonitoring with lichens in British Columbia's inland temperate rainforest. Journal of Ecosystems and Management 114:1-13
  20. MISHRA G.K., P. MAURYA AND D.K. UPRETI 2022. Cenrelia isidiata (Asahina) W.L. Culb. & C. F. Culb (Parmeliaceae) an account to the Indian lichen biota. Journal of Threatended Taxa 14(7): 21467-21469.
  21. OHMURA Y 2001. Taxonomic study of the genus Usnea (Lichenized Ascomycetes) in Japan and Taiwan. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 90: 1-96.
  22. OLSON D.M. AND E. DINERSTEIN 1998. The global 200: a representation approach to conserving the Earth’s most biologically valuable eco regions. Conservation Biology 12(3): 502–515.
  23. ORANGE A., P.W. JAMES AND F.J. WHITE 2001. Microchemical methods for the identification of lichens. British Lichen Society: London.
  24. RANA K., S. NAYAKA, P. SHUKLA AND D.K. UPRETI 2015. Notes on Occurrence of Fruticose Lichens in Joram Top, Ziro Valley, Arunachal Pradesh with 10 New Records to the State. International Journal of Science and Research 4(12):1999-2003
  25. RANAPRABHU N., P. PONMURGAN AND G.K. MISHRA 2021. A new record of pyrenocarpous lichen to the Indian biota. Journal of Threatended Taxa 13(1): 17607-17610.
  26. SANCHO L.G., T.G.A. GREEN AND A. PINTADO 2007. Slowest to fastest: Extreme range in lichen growth rates supports their use as an indicator of climate change in Antarctica. Flora-Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 202: 667–673.
  27. SINGH K.P. AND A. PINOKIYO 2014. Foliicolous lichens of India. Bishen Singh Mahendrapal Singh, Dehradun. 335 pp
  28. SINGH K.P., P. SINGH AND G.P. SINHA 2018. Lichen diversity in the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot region, India. Cryptogam Biodiversity and Assessment. Spl Volume 71-114.

Most read articles by the same author(s)