Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Refining the picture of lichen biota of Himachal Pradesh together with new distributional records to the state


Himachal Pradesh (HP) is one of the biodiversity rich states of Western Himalaya, however meagre information is available regarding lichen biota of this state. In the present study an attempt has been made to provide an updated list of lichens from HP. The list is based on recent collections and some previous available literature made by the authors during the last one decade. A total of 714 species of lichens belonging to 189 genera and 49 families are reported, of which 15 species are new addition to the lichen flora of HP. The Lecanorioid and Parmelioid communities exhibit their dominance in the state and majority of the species are found growing over bark and rocks. The available information on the lichen biota of the state will present the current picture of lichens diversity in the state of Himachal Pradesh and will also serve as a baseline for carrying out future long term monitoring studies.


lichen communities, growth form, substratum preference


Author Biography

Rajesh Bajpai


Ramya Ranjan Paul


Upasana Pandey


C. P. Singh


Amit Kumar


Sanjay K. Uniyal


Veena Pande


D. K. Upreti



Download data is not yet available.


  1. APTROOT, A. AND C.M. VAN HERK 2007. Further evidence of the effects of global warming on lichens particularly those with Tentepohlia phycobionts. Environ. Pollut. 146: 293–298.
  2. AWASTHI, D.D. 1991. A key to the microlichens of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Biblioth. Lichenol. 40: 1-337.
  3. AWASTHI, D.D. 2007. A compendium of the macrolichens from India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Bishen Singh and Mahendera Pal Singh, Dehradun, India.
  4. BAJPAI, R., D.K. UPRETI AND S. NAYAKA 2018. The lichen genera Lepraria (Stereocaulaceae) and Leprocaulon (Leprocaulaceae) in India. Phytotaxa 356 (2): 101–116.
  5. BALLANTYNE, M., C.M. PICKERING, K.L. MCDOUGALL AND G.T. WRIGHT 2014. Sustained impacts of a hiking trail on changing windswept feldmark vegetation in the Australian Alps. Aust. J. Bot. 62:263–275
  6. BARROS, A., J. GONNET AND C. PICKERING 2013. Impacts of informal trails on vegetation and soils in the highest protected area in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Environ.Manage 127:50–60
  7. CAMERON, R., I. GOUDIE AND D. RICHARDSON 2013.Habitat loss exceeds habitat regeneration for an IUCN flagship lichen epiphyte: Erioderma pedicellatum. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 43:1075–1080.
  8. CHANDER, H. AND V.C. CHANDEL 2019. An Enumeration of Lichens from Bara Bhangal Region of Dhauladhar Wildlife Sanctuary. Asian J. Adv. Basic Sci. 7(1): 45-50.
  9. DIRNBÖCK, T., F. ESSL AND W. RABITSCH 2011.Disproportional risk for habitat loss of high altitude endemic species and climate change. Global Change Biology 17: 990-996.
  10. ELIX, J.A. 2014. A catalogue of standardized chromatographic data and biosynthetic relationship for lichen substances.3rdedition. Published by the RSC, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.
  11. GEISER, L.H. AND P.N. NEITLICH 2007. Air pollution and climate gradients in Western Qregon and Washington indicated by epiphytic macrolichens. Environ. Poll. 145: 203-218.
  12. GREEN, T.G.A. AND O.L. LANGE 1991. Ecophysiological adaptations of the lichen genera Pseudocyphellaria and Sticta to south temperate rainforests. The Lichenologist 23: 267-282.
  13. HIMACHAL PRADESH KNOWLEDGE CELL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (HPKCCC) 2020. Department of Environment, Science and Technology, Government of Himachal Pradesh Paryavaran Bhawan, Near US Club, Shimla
  14. INDEX FUNGORUM 2021 names/names.asp/, assessed on June 20th 2021.
  15. LAKATOS, M., U. RASCHER AND B. BÃœDEL 2006. Functional characteristics of corticolous lichens in the understory of a tropical low land rain forest. New Phytologist 172: 679-695.
  16. LÜCKING, R.L., B.P. HODKINSON AND S.D. LEAVITT 2017. The 2016 classification of lichenized fungi in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota – Approaching one thousand genera. The Bryologist 119(4): 361–416
  17. LUMBSCH, H.T., A.L. HIPP, P.K. DIVAKAR, O. BLANCO AND A. CRESPO 2008. Accelerated evolutionary rates in tropical and oceanic Parmelioid lichens (Ascomycota).BMC Evolutionary Biology 8: 257.
  18. MAO, A.A., S.S DAS AND S. KUMAR 2021. Plant Discoveries 2020. Botanical Survey of India, CGO Complex, Salt Lake City, Kolkata. Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, India
  19. MCDOUGALL, K.L. AND G.T. WRIGHT 2004.The impact of trampling on feldmark vegetation in Kosciuszko National Park, Australia. Aust. J. Bot. 52:315–320
  20. MISHRA, G.K., D.K. UPRETI, S. NAYAKA, A. THELL, I.KÄRNEFELT, L. LÅKÖS, J.S. HUR, G.P. SINHA AND S.Y.KONDRATYUK 2020. Current taxonomy of the lichen family Teloschistaceae from India with descriptions of new species. Acta Botanica Hungarica 62(3–4): 309–391
  21. MYCOKEY, 2021., assessed on May 25th, 2021.
  22. NAYAKA, S., D.K. UPRETI AND V. YADAV 2002B. An enumeration and new records of lichens from Sirmaur district, Himachal Pradesh (H.P.), India. Phytotaxonomy 2: 49-63.
  23. NAYAKA S., V. YADAV, R. SRIVASTAVA AND D.K. UPRETI 2002A. An enumeration and new records of lichens from Solan district, Himachal Pradesh, India. Bio. Memoirs 28 (1): 25-33.
  24. NEGI, H.R. AND D.K. UPRETI 2000. Species diversity and relative abundance of lichens in Rumbak catchment of Hemis National Park in Ladakh; Curr. Sci. 78: 1105–1112
  25. NIMIS, P.L., C. SCHEIDEGGER AND P.A. WOLSELEY 2002.Monitoring with Lichens - Monitoring Lichens (eds. PL Nimis, C Scheidegger, PA Wolseley), pp. 1 - 4. Kluwer Academic.
  26. ORANGE, A., P.W. JAMES AND F.J. WHITE 2001.Microchemical methods for the identification of lichens.
  27. British Lichen Society: London.
  28. PRASHER, I.B. AND H. CHANDER 2005. Lichens of Himachal Pradesh – I. Pb. Unv. Res. J. (Sci.) 55 (1 and 2): 109-129.
  30. WIERZCHOS, M. SCHUSTER 2007. Lichens survive in space: Results from 2005 Lichen experiment. Astrobiology 7: 450-454.
  31. SINGH, K.P. AND G.P. SINHA 2010. Indian Lichens: An annotated Checklist. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata.
  32. SRIVASTAVA, R. 2005. Distribution, diversity and pollution status of Lichen in Great Himalayan National Park, Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh. PhD thesis submitted to Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Avadh University, Faizabad, U.P., India.
  33. SRIVASTAVA, R., V. YADAV, D.K. UPRETI AND S. NAYAKA 2004B. An enumeration of lichens from Shimla district, Himachal Pradesh. Geophytology 33(1 and 2): 29-34.
  34. SRIVASTAVA, R., V. YADAV, D.K. UPRETI AND N. SHARMA 2004A. Lichen flora of Bilaspur, Hamirpur and Una districts of Himachal Pradesh, India. Phytotaxonomy 4: 11-18.
  35. THAKUR, M., G.K MISHRA, S. NAYAKA AND H. CHANDER 2020. An Assessment of Lichens Diversity from Mandi District, Himachal Pradesh, India. Intl. J.Plant and Env. 6(4): 277-282.
  36. THAKUR, M. AND H. CHANDER 2018A. An Enumeration of Lichenized Fungi from Sikandra Dhar Region of District Mandi, Himachal Pradesh. J. Biol. Chem. Chron. 4(2): 104-116.
  37. THAKUR, M. AND H. CHANDER 2018B. Common Foliose Macrolichens of Sikander Dhar, North Western Himalaya. CPUH-Research Journal 3(2): 179-186.
  38. UPRETI, D.K. 1999. Lichen Flora of Great Himalayan National Park. Final Report, FREEP-GHNP Research Project, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehra Dun. pp.28.
  39. UPRETI, D.K. AND S. NAYAKA 2000. An enumeration of lichens from Himachal Pradesh. Professor D.D. Nautiyal Commemoration Volume Recent Trends In Botanical Researches, pp. 15-31 Botany Department. Allahabad University, Allahabad, India D.K. Chauhan (ed.).
  40. YADAV, V. 2005. Lichen flora of Himachal Pradesh. PhD thesis Department of Botany, University of Lucknow.