Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Chilocarpus malabaricus Bedd. (Apocynaceae): A poorly known rare and endemic liana from the Western Ghats, Southern India


The paper discuss about Chilocarpus malabaricus Bedd., a poorly known rare and endemic liana from the Western Ghats, Southern India by amplifying description and providing detailed illustrations. Micromorphological features of pollen grains and seed surface, distribution map, and conservation strategies of C. malabaricus are also provided.


Chilocarpus malabaricus, distribution map, pollen, seed, SEM



Download data is not yet available.


  1. BEDDOME, R.H. 1874. Apocynaceae. Icones Plantarum Indiae Orientalis. Gantz Brothers, Madras. pp. 38–39.
  2. BLUME, C.L. 1826-27. Bijdragen tot de Flora van Nederlandsch Indie. Lands Drukkerij, Batavia.
  3. BRANDIS, D. 1906. Apocynaceae. Indian Trees: An account of trees, shrubs, woody climbers, bamboos, and palms indigenous or commonly cultivated in the British Indian Empire. A. Constable, London. pp. 454–465.
  4. DATTA, A. 2020. Apocynaceae. In: MAO A.A. AND DASH, S.S. (Eds.), Flowering Plants of India: An Annotated Checklist, Dicotyledons. Vol. 2. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata. pp. 86–104.
  5. DATTA, A. AND M.P. NAYAR. 2021. Fascicles of Flora of India. Fascicle 30. Apocynaceae. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata. 306 pp.
  6. GAMBLE, J.S. 1923. Apocynaceae. The Flora of the Presidency of Madras. Adlard & Son, London. part V, pp. 800–821.
  7. HOOKER, J. D. 1882. The Flora of British India. Vol. 3. L. Reeve. & Co., London.
  8. IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee (IUCN SPS) 2022. Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 15.1, Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee.
  9. LEEUWENBERG, A.J.M. 2002. Series of revisions of Apocynaceae LII. Chilocarpus. Syst. Geogr. Pl. 72: 127– 166.
  10. MARKGRAF, F. 1971. Florae Malesianae Praecursores LI. Apocynaceae I. 1. Carissa, 2. Catharanthus, 3. Melodinus, 4. Leuconotis, 5. Chilocarpus. Blumea 19: 149–166.
  11. MIDDLETON, D.J. 2006. Three new species of Chilocarpus (Apocynaceae – Rauvolfioideae) from Malesia. Edinburgh J. Bot. 63: 201–207.
  12. MIDDLETON, D.J. AND EDINBURGH 2007. Apocynaceae (Subfamilies Rauvolfioideae and Apocynoideae). Flora Malesiana. Ser. I, Vol. 18. 452 pp.
  13. NAYAR, T.S., A. RASIYA BEEGAM AND M. SIBI. 2014. Flowering Plants of the Western Ghats, India. Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram.
  14. RAGHAVAN, R. S. 1964. A Note on Chilocarpus malabaricus Bedd. (Apocynaceae). Bull. Bot. Surv. India 6: Nos. 2-4: 309–310.
  15. RIDLEY, H.N. 1923. The Flora of the Malay Peninsula. L. Reeve & co., ltd. London.
  16. SANJAPPA, M. AND A. N. SRINGESWARA 2019. Flora of Karnataka, A Checklist, Vol 2: Gymnosperm and Angiosperm. Karnataka Biodiversity Board, Bengaluru.
  17. SASIDHARAN, N. 2004. Biodiversity Documentation for Kerala Part 6: Flowering Plants. Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, Thrissur.
  18. SUJANA, K.A. AND N. ANIL KUMAR. 2016. Local uses of Lianas in Wayanad District of Kerala, South India. In: Sujana, K. A., Durai, M.V. & Sivaperuman, C. (Eds.), Forest Ecosystem Biodiversity, Ecology and Conservation. Educational Press an imprint of Write & Print Publications, New Delhi. pp. 141–171.
  19. YOGANARASIMHAN, S.N., K.R. KESHAVAMURTHY, V.C. GOVINDAIAH AND V.S. TOGUNASHI. 1982. A new species of Chilocarpus Bl., (Apocynaceae) from Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Curr. Sci. 51: 902–904.
  20. WCSP 2022. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, published on the internet: Accessed on 03 November 2022.