Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Glimpse of Herbaceous and Woody Climbers of Hassan District, Karnataka


The study was carried out to document the species of herbaceous and woody climbers in the Western Ghats region of the Hassan district. A total of 170 species of climbers were documented belonging to 126 genera under 46 families. The dominant climber families are Leguminosae (26 spp.), Convolvulaceae (18 spp.), followed by Cucurbitaceae (17 spp.). Of the total climbers documented, 76 species belongs to herbaceous climbers and 94 species belongs to woody climbers. Of the six climbing mechanisms, twiners (54 %) are most predominant, followed by tendril climbers (21 %), stragglers-armed (13 %), stragglers-unarmed (8 %), root climbers (3 %), and hook climbers (1 %). Distribution among the vegetation revealed that a maximum number of species inhabit tropical dry deciduous forest (52 spp.), scrub forest (39 spp.), and wasteland (33 spp.) have the most species, followed by home garden (28 spp.), tropical semi-evergreen forest, (21 spp.), tropical moist deciduous forest (16 spp.), and other vegetation types. The study also documented the various uses of climbers for human consumption (42 spp.), medicinal purpose (98 spp.), ornamental purpose (26 spp.), and other uses (4 spp.).


Climbers, Climbing Mode, Hassan, Western Ghats, Uses.


Author Biography

G. M. Prashanth Kumar

Department of Botany, Post Graduate Centre, University of Mysore, Hassan-573220, Karnataka

N. Shiddamallayya

Dr. Shiddamallayya N,
Research Officer (Botany),
Medicinal Plant Research Section,Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences,Jawahar Lal Nehru Bhartiya Chikitsa Avum Homeopathy Anusandhan Bhavan
No.61-65, Institutional Area, Opp. 'D' Block, Janakpuri,
New Delhi - 110058 ( India )
Contact Number: +919449644341


Download data is not yet available.


  1. ALI M., T. ISAH, DIPTI AND A. MUJIB 2016. Climber Plants: Medicinal Importance and Conservation Strategies. In: Shahzad A., Sharma S., Siddiqui S. (eds) Biotechnological strategies for the conservation of medicinal and ornamental climbers. Springer, Cham. 101-138
  2. ANBARASHAN, M. AND N. PARTHASARATHY 2013. Diversity and ecology of lianas in tropical dry evergreen forests on the Coromandel Coast of India under various disturbance regimes. Flora, 208:22-32.
  3. ARAUJO, D. AND M. ALVES 2010. Climbing plants of a fragmented area of lowland Atlantic Forest, Igarassu, Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil). Phytotaxa, 8:1-24.
  4. ARROYO-RODRIGUEZ, V., N. ASENSIO, J. C. DUNN, J. CRISTOBAL-AZKARATE AND A. GONZALEZ-ZAMORA 2015. Use of lianas by primates: more than a food resource. In: Schnitzer SA, Bongers F, Burnham RJ, Putz FE (eds) The ecology of lianas. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, 407-426.
  5. BABU, K.N., K. AYUSHI, V.K. WILSON, N. AYYAPPAN AND N. PARTHASARATHY 2021. The woody flora of Shettihalli Wildlife Sanctuary, central Western Ghats of Karnataka, India-A checklist. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 13(13): 20033-20055.
  6. BONATI, A 1991. Industry and the conservation of medicinal plants. In: Akerele O, Heywood V, Synge H (eds) Conservation of medicinal plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 141.
  7. BONGERS, F. J. J. M., M. P. E. PARREN, M. D. SWAINE AND D. TRAORÉ 2005. Forest climbing plants of West Africa: introduction. in F Bongers, MPE Parren & D Traoré (eds), Forest Climbing Plants of West Africa. Diversity, Ecology and Management. CABI Publishing, Oxfordshire, 5-18 https://doi:10.1079/9780851999142.0000
  8. BURNHAM, R. J 2009. An overview of the fossil record of climbers: Bejucos, Sogas, Trepadoras, Lianas, Cipos, & Vines. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 12:149–160. https://doi:10.4072/rbp.2009.2.05
  9. CABALLE, G 1998. The self-supporting part of the tropical lianas: A synthesis of the strategies of growth. Canadian Journal of Botany, 76:1703–1716.
  10. CAI, Z.Q., S.A. SCHNITZER, B. WEN, Y.J. CHEN AND F. BONGERS 2009. Liana communities in three tropical forest types in Xishuangbanna South-West China. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 252-264.
  11. CHAUDHURI, A.B 2007. Endangered medicinal plants. Daya Publishing House, New Delhi, 155
  12. CHETTRI, A., S. K. BARIK, H. N. PANDEY AND M. K. LYNGDOH 2010. Liana diversity and abundance as related to microenvironment in three forest types located in different elevational ranges of the Eastern Himalayas. Plant Ecology and Diversity, 3:175–185.
  13. GENTRY, A. H 1991. The distribution and evolution of climbing plants. In: Mooney HA, Putz FE (eds) The biology of vines. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 3–49.
  14. GOLLASIMOOD, S., I. FARIDAH-HANUM, M. NAZRE AND A.B.D KUDUS KAMZIAH 2012. Abundance and distribution of climbers in a coastal hills forest in Perak, Malaysia. Journal of Agricultural Science, 4:245-254. https://
  15. HU L., M. LI 2015 Diversity and Distribution of Climbing Plants in Eurasia and North Africa. In: Parthasarathy N. (eds) Biodiversity of Lianas. Sustainable Development and Biodiversity, vol 5. Springer, Cham. 57-79 IUCN 2021.
  16. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-1. (Accessed 25 Dec 2021).
  17. JAYAKUMAR AND R. K. NAIR 2013. Diversity and distribution of vines in the tropical forests of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, India. Current science, 105: 470-479.
  18. KHARE, C. P 2007. Indian medicinal plants: an illustrated dictionary. Springer, New York
  19. MEHTA, V.K., P.J. SULLIVAN, M.T. WALTER, J. KRISHNASWAMY AND S.D. DEGLORIA 2008. Ecosystem impacts of disturbance in a dry tropical forest in southern India, Ecohydrology, 1(2):149-160.
  20. MOHANDASS, D., A.C. HUGHES, B. MACKAY, P. DAVIDAR AND T. CHHABRA 2016. Floristic species composition and structure of a mid-elevation tropical montane evergreen forests (sholas) of the Western Ghats, southern India. Tropical Ecology, 57(3): 533-543
  21. MUTHUMPERUMAL C. AND N. PARTHASARATHY 2013. Diversity, distribution and resource values of woody climbers in tropical forests of southern Eastern Ghats, India. Journal of Forestry Research, 24(2): 365−374.
  22. NAIDU, M.T., O.A KUMAR AND M. VENKAIAH 2014. Taxonomic diversity of lianas in tropical forests of Northern Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 6(1): 59-65.
  23. PADAKI, A. AND N. PARTHASARATHY, 2000. Abundance and distribution of lianas in tropical lowland evergreen forest of Agumbe, central Western Ghats, India. Tropical Ecology, 41(2): 143-154
  24. PARTHASARATHY N., P. VIVEK C. MUTHUMPERUMAL, S. MUTHURAMKUMAR AND N. AYYAPPAN 2015 Biodiversity of Lianas and Their Functional Traits in Tropical Forests of Peninsular India. In: Parthasarathy N. (eds) Biodiversity of Lianas. Sustainable Development and Biodiversity, vol 5. Springer, Cham. 123-148
  25. RAI, A., A. CHETTRI, A. PRADHAN, S. K. RAI, A. K. RAI AND N. T. LEPCHA 2016. Diversity of climbing plants in ‘Gadi’sacred grove of Central Pendam in East Sikkim, India. Pleione, 10(1): 97-107.
  26. RAO, G.S.A. AND Y. L. KRISHNAMURTHY 2021. Flowering plants of Agumbe region, central Western Ghats, Karnataka, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 13(7):18853–18867.
  27. REDDY, C.S., A. JOSEPH, G A. ABRAHAM AND M. M. SABU 2021. Patterns of animal and plant discoveries, distribution and endemism in India—implications on the effectiveness of the protected area network. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 193(2): 1-16
  28. RICHARDSON, D. M., P. PYSEK, M. REJMÃNEK, M. G BARBOUR, F. D. PANETTA AND C. J. WEST 2000. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: Concepts and definitions. Diversity and Distributions 6: 93.
  29. ROY, B., A. C. HALDER AND D. C. PAL 1988. Plants for human consumption in India, Botanical Survey of India, Flora of India series 4.
  30. SAHU, P. K. AND J. S. SINGH 2008. Structural attributes of lantana-invaded forest plots in Achanakmar–Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve, Central India. Current Science, 494-500.
  31. SALDANHA, C. J 1996. Flora of Karnataka. Vol. 2. Oxford & IBH Publishing. Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
  32. SALDANHA, C.J 1984. Flora of Karnataka. Vol 1. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
  33. SALDANHA, C.J. AND D. H NICOLSON 1976. Flora of Hassan District Karnataka, India. Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi.
  34. SARVALINGAM, A. AND A. RAJENDRAN 2016. Rare, Endangered and Threatened (RET) climbers of Southern Western Ghats, India. Revista chilena de historia natural. 89:9
  35. SCHNITZER, S.A. AND F. BONGERS 2002. The ecology of lianas and their role in forests. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 17(5):223–230
  36. SEGER, G.D.D.S. AND S.M. HARTZ 2014. Checklist of climbing plants in an Araucaria forest of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Biota Neotropica, 14.
  37. SINGH, P., K. KARTHIGEYAN, P. LAKSHMINARASIMHAN AND S. S. DASH 2015. Endemic Vascular Plants of India. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata.
  38. SUNDARAPANDIAN S M., C. MUTHUMPERUMAL AND K. SUBASHREE 2015. Biological invasion of vines, their impacts and management. In Biodiversity of Lianas In: Parthasarathy N. (eds) Biodiversity of Lianas. Sustainable Development and Biodiversity, vol 5. Springer, Cham. 211-253
  39. TRA BI, F. H 1997. Use of plants, by man, in the classified forests of Haut-Sassandra and Scio, in Ivory Coast. These doctoral studies, University of Cocody-Abidjan, FAST, serial numbers 257 (97): 212.
  40. TRA BI, F. H., F. N. KOUAME AND D. TRAORE 2002. Utilisation des lianes dans deux Forêts Classées de l’Ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire. Chapitre dans le livre Bongers & Traoré.
  41. TRA BI, F. H., F. N. KOUAME AND D. TRAORE 2005. Utilisation of climbers in two forest reserves in west Cote d’Ivoire. In: Bongers F, Parren MPE, Traore D (eds) Forest climbing plants of West Africa: diversity, ecology, and management. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, 167-182.
  42. UPADHYAYA AND S. D. DEBNATH 2013. Tribal health tradition and non-destructive sustainable harvesting of herbal medicines: an anthropological study in sustainable development in the Baigas and Bhariyas of Madhya Pradesh, India. In: Proceedings of 17th world congress of the IUAES, Manchester.
  43. WORLD FLORA ONLINE (WFO) 2021. (Accessed 15 Dec 2021).
  44. THE PLANT LIST (TPL) 2021. (Accessed 15 Dec 2021).
  45. GLOBAL INVASIVE SPECIES DATABASE (GISD) 2021. (Accessed 15 Dec 2021).